This is a gallery of the Fantastic Fifty Females
Alice Hawkins (Stafford, 1863 - Leicester, 1946) was a leading English suffragette among the boot and shoe machinists of Leicester.
She went to prison five times for acts committed as part of the Women’s Social and Political Union militant campaign.
Her husband Alfred Hawkins was also an active suffragette and received £100 when his kneecap was fractured as he was ejected
from a meeting in Bradford.
In 2018 a statue of Alice was unveiled in Leicester Market Square.
These inspirational quotes and famous words of wisdom will brighten up your day and make you feel ready to take on anything
The front is all about you, look in and see yourself – What will you do? The back a quiz made from words volunteered from the staff in the Co-op and customers to create a crossword. Can you guess all the words? This cutout has been to many festivals and events and hundreds of people have been chalking new words on the front of our lady – we hope she inspires you!
Agnes Smyth Baden-Powell (born 16th December 1858 London – died 2 June 1945) was the younger sister of Robert Baden-Powell, and was most noted for her work in establishing the Girl Guide movement as a female counterpart to her older brother's Scouting Movement. Following the creation of the Boy Scout Association, Robert Baden- Powell organised a gathering of Scouts at the Crystal Palace in London in 1909. Amongst the many thousands of Boy Scouts gathered, there was a small group of girl, dressed in Scout uniforms, who had gatecrashed the event without tickets. When asked, they replied, "We are the Girl Scouts!" Popular opinion at this time was against mixed activities for girls, Agnes agreed to take on the organising of the new sister group, Girl Guides. Agnes Baden-Powell's character was useful in counteracting negative opinions of the new Girl Guides. A friend wrote of her: “Anyone who had come into touch with her gentle influence, her interest in all womanly arts, and her love of birds, insects, and flowers, would scoff at the idea of her being the president of a sort of Amazon Cadet Corps. By April 1910 there were 6,000 young girls registered as Girl Guides. Agnes wrote the Guides 'The Handbook for the Girl Guides or How Girls Can Help to Build Up the Empire’, in 1912. The Girl Guide movement was given official recognition in 1915. In 1917 Agnes resigned from the presidency in favour of Princess Mary, who was also a keen supporter of the Girl Guides, and Agnes became Vice-President. Agnes continued as Vice-President until her death.
Mothers teach us to have confidence and belief in ourselves. Mothers knew from experience how important for people to believe in themselves in order for children to be whole, strong and grow with a healthy estimation of oneself.
Chosen after doing some thinking and having a group vote female police offers pipped business women to the post!
Gemma Steel (born 12 November 1985) is a British long-distance runner who competes in road running and cross country running competitions. She was the 2011 bronze medallist at the European Cross Country Championships. She has represented Great Britain internationally in cross country, road and track events. She has won at three of the Great Run series events: the Great Ireland Run, Great Birmingham Run and Great Yorkshire Run. She has also won the Bristol Half Marathon and placed seventh at the 2012 IAAF World Half Marathon Championships.
Blyth Spartans Association Football Club is a football club based in Blyth, Northumberland. They are currently members of the National League North, the sixth tier of English football, and play at Croft Park. They were founded in September 1899 by Fred Stoker, who was the club's first secretary before forming a practice as a distinguished physician in London's Harley Street. He thought it appropriate to name the team after the Greek Spartan army in the hope that the players would give their all as they went into 'battle' on the field of play. The club is most notable for its 1977–78 FA Cup campaign, in which they went all the way to the 5th round only to be beaten by Wrexham in a replay at St James' Park.
We chose authors because they are fantastic females and they deserve to be fantastic as they spend a lot of time writing books so we can read them. They need some appreciation of what they do for other people they go above and beyond for readers as they have their own website they do Q&A's so readers can find more out about them and find out what their favourite books are and why they chose to write them and get the inspiration from.
Eleanor May Simmonds, OBE (born 11 November 1994) is a British Paralympian swimmer competing in S6 events. She came to national attention when she competed in the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing, winning two gold medals for Great Britain, despite being the youngest member of the team, at the age of 13. In 2012, she was again selected for the Great Britain squad, this time swimming at a home games in London. She won another two golds in London, including setting a World Record in the 400m freestyle, and a further gold medal at the Rio Paralympics in 2016, this time setting a world record for the 200m medley.
Wife of Benjamin Whall Director of Music Lincoln Cathedral for 51 years an important part of the fabric of the Christian family then and commemorated in the cloisters
Veronica Mary Whall was an important stained glass artist, painter, and illustrator associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement. Her father, Christopher Whall, was the leader of the Arts and Crafts Movement in stained glass
Aphra Behn (1640-1689) was the first Englishwoman to earn a living as a writer, a role not thought proper for women. She was treated as a celebrity but criticised for writing too. Separated from her husband, she was ‘forced to write for bread and not ashamed to owne it.’ Aphra Behn wrote 18 plays, 6 novels and 2 collections of poetry. Nell Gwyn played female lead in Aphra Behn's play ‘The Rover’ (1677). Aphra spent time in the West Indies and worked on what she saw into ‘Oroonoko’ (1688) - a novel about an enslaved African prince and the first English book to express sympathy for slaves. Aphra Behn broke cultural barriers and was a role model for later women authors. In 1929, the author Virginia Woolf said: "All women together ought to let flowers fall upon the tomb of Aphra Behn … for it was she who earned them the right to speak their minds."
Boudica or Boudicca was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61, and died shortly after its failure, having supposedly poisoned herself. She is considered a British folk hero
Ann Ayre Hely was born in the early 19th century in Ravenstone, Leicestershire. After the death of her husband, she volunteered to become a nurse in Turkey during the Crimean War.
Over the years the role and rights of women have changed beyond all recognition. But, one thing that has stayed constant is the sheer number of awe-inspiring women that exist all over the world.
Our purpose at Go M.A.D. Thinking is making the world a brighter place. We do this by helping people to have Light Bulb Moments. All these inspirational women have Made A Difference and to do this they will have followed all or some of these key principles.
Mary was an English fossil collector, dealer, and paleontologist who became known around the world for important finds she made in Jurassic marine fossil beds in the cliffs along the English Channel at Lyme Regis in the county of Dorset in Southwest England. Her findings contributed to important changes in scientific thinking about prehistoric life and the history of the Earth.
Emily Wilding Davison was a suffragette who fought for votes for women in the United Kingdom in the early twentieth century. A member of the Women's Social and Political Union and a militant fighter for her cause, she was arrested on ten occasions, went on hunger strike seven times and was force fed on forty-nine occasions. She died after being hit by King George V's horse Anmer at the 1913 Derby when she walked onto the track during the race.
Fanny was born in Ibstock and became a nurse working in Liverpool. At the outbreak of the First World war, she joined the Red Cross and went to the Western Front. She went out in to No Mans land with the stretcher bearers to rescue injured soldiers. She was shot in the arm and had to come back to Britain. Once Fanny recovered, she was posted to Palestine and Egypt and served in that campaign for the rest of the war. She was awarded the Royal Red Cross 2nd class by the king in 1920.
Marlene was a local lady who worked hard for voluntary services despite her disability and being confined to a wheelchair, whilst also managing a busy family life. Her hard work earnt her the award of ‘Leicestershire’s Woman Of The Year’ and Coalville created the Marlene Reid Centre to honour her efforts to help people in the community.
We chose Doris Moore because she is a local lady, who had an interesting job as a Nurse in World War 1. She served in Egypt, Syria, Palestine and the Holy Land. One of her patients was Lawrence of Arabia.
Clare Hollingworth was born in Leicester and grew up in Shepshed. She attended Ashby School. She became a reporter and was in Poland in 1939 where she noticed armoured vehicles which had been concealed and reported them to the Home Office. They were German troops ready to invade Poland and she was the first person to report the outbreak of the war. Clare was determined to share what was happening on the front line with people around the world and passed her findings to the government as well as publishing in newspapers. She affected the war effort directly through her observations, but also helped the people at home understand what was happening before mass-media coverage existed. Clare has been involved in conflict throughout her career and after WW2 also went to report from the frontline in Iran, Vietnam and Algeria amongst other places. She believed in liberty and started her career through arranging visas for refugees in Warsaw to help them escape the regime. Clare was fearless in her pursuit of sharing the real story of what was happening with the world and her government. She has reported from some of the most dangerous places in the world, and has been arrested and threatened, but remained determined to expose the truth and show war for what it really is. She noticed the vehicles and alerted the authorities about the start of WW2 and was not afraid to speak up about what she had seen.
We decided to pick the Suffagettes for a variety of reasons such as they were all determined women who inspired many people to fight for what they believe in, began to put an end to sexism and defied expectations of women.
Dorothy was a school secretary, and suffragette Dorothy Pethick lead the WSPU in Leicestershire from 1911-12. She organised an all-night party in their head quarters on the night of the 1911 census to boycott it because she believed that “if women don’t count neither shall they be counted”. She was arrested and imprisoned three times in 1909-1910 and wrote articles about the poor hygiene conditions she experienced there. Dorothy was a key member of the suffragette movement who fought tirelessly for equality and for the vote for women regardless of risk to their own liberty. Dorothy served as a police officer in the war, using her experiences and training as a social worker to bring a fair and non-judgemental attitude to her policing. Dorothy is inspiring because she fought for what she believed in even when things got difficult for her. She recognised when things were unfair and contributed to changing them instead of just moaning about them and expecting other people to do something about it.
WANGARI MAATHAI (1940-2011) was a Kenyan environmental and women's rights activist. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004 (the first African women to achieve this) for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace. Maathai was an elected member of Parliament and served as assistant minister for Environment and Natural resources in the government of President Mwai Kibaki between January 2003 and November 2005. She was an Honorary Councillor of the World Future Council. She was affiliated to professional bodies and received several awards. In 2011, Maathai died of complications from ovarian cancer.
Katherine is a US professional e Sports competitor. She is featured in the Guinness World Records 2016 for having the highest career earnings of any female competitive gamer totalling over $160,000. I have depicted her in the uniform of Spartan from the Halo series of games in which she has been very successful. I chose her because I feel she is a true trailblazer in a very male dominated emerging business. The world of eSports (competitive video gaming) is a relatively new, but a rapidly growing one. Some industry pundits believe it will reach the same level of popularity and support as football. Fans are already attending eSports competitions at live venues in their tens of thousands and live streaming of competitions online achieves viewings in the millions. Unlike physical sports there should be no barrier to women competing equally alongside men. Despite this there are few successful women in the sport and the 10 top men have all earned over $3 million dollars each. eSports needs to look closely at its culture if it is to achieve equal opportunity and a level virtual playing field, and society needs to accept and encourage women in non-traditional careers.
Pollyanna Pickering was acclaimed as one of Europe's foremost wildlife artists. The most published artist in the UK, her work sells in over eighty countries. Her work has appeared on cards, commissioned by charities including the WWF, Guide Dogs for the Blind and the RSPB and also on stamps and first day covers. Pollyanna was passionate about wildlife and an international champion of environmental conservation. She also campaigned tirelessly for the welfare of endangered, sick and vulnerable creatures. She has won many awards and accolades both for her painting and for her conservation work. For fifteen years Pollyanna ran a registered hospital for birds of prey from her home. Caring mainly for injured and orphaned raptors, she also rehabilitated foxes, hedgehogs, squirrels and other mammals.
The Mexican painter Frida Kahlo (1907–1954) is regarded as one of the great artists of the 20th century. She was left disabled by polio as a child. Then, aged 18 a devastating road accident caused near fatal injuries and left her with a lifetime of pain and medical problems. This event shattered her dreams of studying medicine and she turned instead to art, initially with the idea of becoming a medical illustrator. A specially- made easel enabled her to paint in bed and with a mirror placed above it she was able to paint self-portraits. Frida painted many self-portraits in her life, often showing herself dressed in the brightly coloured and decorated traditional Mexican outfits. Her work explored questions of identity, postcolonialism, gender, class, and race in Mexican society. She was also very active politically belonging to the post-revolutionary Mexicayotl movement.
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The United States Congress has called her "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement” On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order to give up her seat in the "colored section" to a white passenger, after the whites-only section was filled. Parks' prominence in the community and her willingness to become a controversial figure inspired the black community to boycott the Montgomery buses for over a year, the first major direct action campaign of the post-war civil rights movement. Parks' act of defiance and the Montgomery bus boycott became important symbols of the movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. She organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including Edgar Nixon, president of the local chapter of the NAACP; and Martin Luther King, Jr., a new minister in Montgomery who gained national prominence in the civil rights movement.
May was the second of three daughters of Charles Cannan, Dean of Trinity College, Oxford. In 1911, at the age of 18 she joined the Voluntary Aid Detachment, training as a nurse and eventually reaching the rank of Quartermaster. Sharon Ouditt, writing of women's role in the war, noted that: "For the nurses it was, like the nun's cross, the badge of their equal sacrifice." In a poem by May Wedderburn Cannan the Red Cross sign is seen to be equivalent to the crossed swords indicating her lover's death in battle: And all you asked of fame Was crossed swords in the Army List, My Dear, against your name.
Here is our Fantastic Female, Gunner Betty Hatter, service number 210073. Betty lived on the road our Sqn is based on . Her father (Charlie Hatter) was one of the Famous 50, her son grew up to be a local historian. She is also related to our Sgt Clark. She volunteered to serve in the Auxiliary Territorial Service because her fiance , Les was a prisoner of war in Singapore and she wanted to help the war effort. She was based in several locations including Hayling Island. She volunteered to be a range and height finder with 602 Mixed Heavy Anti-aircraft Battery. Looking for incoming aircraft carrying bombs. Her battery also saw the first V1 Doodlebug. She bravely put herself in danger to protect Portsmouth and Southampton as well other cities. When off duty she sang Vera Lynn Songs to entertain fellow troops. On VE Day she was outside Buckingham Palace, she saw the Royal Family and Churchill. You can read her story, in her words in the book "Sons and Daughters, vol 1" by Michael Kendrick.
For individual nominations as the fantastic females travel around.
What you may not know about the early forming of modern-day England is that it was championed by a woman- Aetheflaed, a courageous and visionary woman who fought mercilessly against the Vikings and other invading forces of the late 900th century. It is likely that Aethelflaed lost influence in history due to her brother’s rise and claim to power, but she none-the-less was a fearless warrior and leader of her region. One of her admirers, William of Malmsebury, described her as “a powerful accession to [Edward’s] party, the delight of his subjects, the dread of his enemies, a woman of enlarged soul”. She was remarkable and capable, a lost artifact of history. She felt her power so potent that, after the birth of her first son, she declined a second lover for fear that “it was ‘unbecoming of the daughter of a king to give way to a delight which, after a time, produced such painful consequences'”. She felt her power and influence was too precious to give to anyone.
Julia Donaldson MBE (born 16 September 1948) is an English writer, playwright and performer, and the 2011–2013 Children's Laureate. She is best known for her popular rhyming stories for children, especially those illustrated by Axel Scheffler, which include The Gruffalo, Room on the Broom and Stick Man. She originally wrote songs for children's television but has concentrated on writing books since the words of one of her songs, "A Squash and a Squeeze", were made into a children's book in 1993. Of her 184 published works, 64 are widely available in bookshops. The remaining 120 are intended for school use and include her Songbirds phonic reading scheme, which is part of the Oxford University Press's Oxford Reading Tree.
Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an early age, Montessori broke gender barriers and expectations when she enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with hopes of becoming an engineer. Her educational method is in use today in many public and private schools throughout the world. Based on her observations, Montessori implemented a number of practices that became hallmarks of her educational philosophy and method. She replaced the heavy furniture with child-sized tables and chairs light enough for the children to move, and placed child-sized materials on low, accessible shelves. She expanded the range of practical activities and included large open air sections in the classroom encouraging children to come and go as they please in the room's different areas. In her book she outlines a typical winter's day of lessons, starting at 09:00 AM and finishing at 04:00 PM including; Greeting, Personal Cleanliness, Exercises of practical life, Going over the room to see that everything is dusted and in order, Language, Conversation, Religious exercises, Intellectual exercises, Sense exercises, Simple gymnastics, Movements, Free games, Directed games, open air, Manual work, Clay modelling, design, Collective gymnastics, Songs, Visiting, and caring for, the plants and animals. She felt by working independently children could reach new levels of autonomy and become self-motivated to reach new levels of understanding. Montessori also came to believe that acknowledging all children as individuals and treating them as such would yield better learning and fulfilled potential in each particular child. She continued to adapt, altering or removing exercises which were chosen less frequently by the children. Also based on her observations, Montessori experimented with allowing children free choice of the materials, uninterrupted work, and freedom of movement and activity within the limits set by the environment. She began to see independence as the aim of education, and the role of the teacher as an observer and director of children's innate psychological development.
Dolly Shepherd was born in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, England, as Elizabeth Shepherd. At the age of 16, as a waitress she overheard two men discussing the loss of a target for an act in which they shot an apple off a girl’s head; she volunteered on the spot. In 1905 she ascended on a trapeze slung below a hot-air balloon to a height of two to four-thousand feet before descending on a parachute. On one occasion both the balloon and the parachute malfunctioned, and she found herself rising to 15,000 feet. At this height, both the cold and lack of oxygen were threatening to make her lose her grip. Fortunately, the balloon returned to earth. She was not so lucky on a later occasion when she ascended with another girl whose parachute would not release, so she had to wrap her arms and legs around Shepherd so that they could descend on one parachute. The descent was too fast, and Shepherd was paralysed for several weeks. She nevertheless returned to her act and first flew again at Ashby-de-la-Zouch. Edith Maud Cook died from injuries sustained following a jump from a balloon at Coventry on 9 July 1910 when her parachute collapsed after a gust of wind blew her on to a factory roof. Shepherd had been due to make the jump but Cook had taken her place. According to BBC History magazine she liked to "go high because I had it in my head that if I had to be killed, I’d like to be killed completely: good and proper!" She recalled that on one occasion she almost landed on a steam train "That driver, he had some forethought: he blew the steam and just blew me off into a canal at Grantham." Shepherd later married, but still managed a flight with the Red Devils display team a few years before she died at the age of 96. There has now been a road named after Shepherd in the town where she first flew again (Ashby-de-la-Zouch); "Dolly Shepherd Close" is off Philip Bent Road approximately 0.6 miles due West of the town centre.
Marsha P Johnson was an American trans woman and drag performer who played a pivotal role in LGBT activism in the late 1960s and early 70s. Often, she is credited for having a crucial role in the Stonewall Riots of 1969, which marked as a start to the concept of Pride due to unity of LGBT members against systematic discrimination. She also aided Sylvia Rivera in founding STAR to aid homeless or struggling LGBT youth. At only 46, her body was found in the Hudson River, seeming to be connected to a series of murders of black trans women, although an investigation into her death was never conducted due to being ruled as suicide by police forces, despite her close friends ensuring that wasn’t the case. Unfortunately, such violence and injustice against black trans women is still present today, 30 years later, which many are unaware of.
To give people the chance to share experiences and to be able to get things off their chest. This is not about people telling others what to do or what not to do - it has been created to enable sharing and promote thought.
This is for all women! TO SHARE EXPERIENCES TO HELP YOUNGER GIRLS: WHAT ADVICE WOULD YOU GIVE TO YOUR 10 YEAR OLD SELF ABOUT PERIODS?
To give people a chance to share thoughts and feelings whether or not they have self harmed. To give people the chance to express their feelings in an anonymous way. This is not about people telling others what to do or what not to do - it has been created to enable sharing and promote thought.
As a woman Mary was not allowed to become a member of the Geological Society and was not able to publish articles about her finds. Gentlemen scientists published her findings, often forgetting to credit her and claiming her discoveries as their own. In 2010, a hundred and sixty years after her death the Royal Society included Mary Anning in their list of 10 British women who most influenced the history of science.
Jessica Thom (born 14 July 1980) is a British theatre-maker and comedian best known for Tourettes Hero, an alter-ego and project aimed at increasing awareness of Tourette's Syndrome, the neurological condition which she was diagnosed with in her early twenties. The first Touretteshero production, Backstage in Biscuit Land debuted at Edinburgh Fringe Festival in 2014. The show won critical acclaim and has since toured across the UK and internationally, including various performances across North America and Australia. Thom has also made numerous appearances on British television, notably an interview on Russel Howard's Good News which has garnered more than 857,000 YouTube views as of 12th September 2018.
In 1946 Barbara achieved The Defence Medal. She worked at the workhouse as a nursing assistant with the civil nursing reserve in 1940. In 1950 she became the assistant matron. She is our hero.
Our ancestors led very different lives and faced lots of varying challenges, yet there is a common link between all women from all the ages and that is, our DNA. The energy and essence of them, is something each and every one of us has inherited as limitless potential. Consider the strength of character, the emotional resilience, the extraordinary wisdom that has evolved and been passed on with each generation. In times gone by, life was much simpler in many respects and determined largely by an understanding of the natural laws. Indeed, it was a matter of life or death.
In recent times, particularly in modern civilisations, there has been less attention given to the amazing potential of the natural capabilities in the human body. Both women and men, have become more dependent on external sources for answers to all sorts of modern day problems and issues, especially when it comes to personal health matters. Today, there is a growing movement with many fantastic female health professionals who are offering empowering programmes for personal development and self-care, which help women and men to be ‘tuned in’ to their own natural resources; learning, unleashing and harnessing the power within to help themselves lead happier and healthier lifestyles. May you be inspired, informed and practise a modern version of ancient wisdom, to provide you with a simple strategy for a wholesome experience. Delve deeper into Surana’s colourful energy centres located on the back of her cloak to reveal the gems and integrate at least one facet into your daily routine for a magical transformation.
Clare Hollingworth, OBE (10 October 1911 – 10 January 2017) was an English journalist and author. She was the first war correspondent to report the outbreak of World War II, described as "the scoop of the century". As a reporter for The Daily Telegraph in 1939, while travelling from Poland to Germany, she spotted and reported German forces massed on the Polish border; three days later she was the first to report the German invasion of Poland. Hollingworth was appointed OBE by Elizabeth II for "services to journalism" in 1982. She was 105 when she died.
St Helen was the mother of Emperor Constantine, the Roman Emperor who introduced Christianity, largely, it is thought, through her influence. Helen is a significant figure in shaping the religious landscape of a large part of today’s world. Helen went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and was said to have discovered a piece of the cross on which Jesus was crucified. That is why the church community of St Helens in Ashby has decorated St Helen, our fantastic female, with small crosses. On the back of St Helen we have made a collage of photographs showing the life of St Helen’s church today. The church is more than the building – it is mainly the people who live and worship together.
Selina, Countess of Huntingdon (24 August 1707 – 17 June 1791) was an English religious leader who played a prominent part in the religious revival of the 18th century and the Methodist movement in England and Wales, and has left an affiliated group of churches (Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion) in England and in Sierra Leone in Africa. She played a major role in financing and guiding early Methodism. Selina was the first female principal of a men's college in Wales (Trefeca College, for the education of Methodist ministers). She financed the building of 64 chapels in England and Wales, wrote often to George Whitefield and John Wesley, and funded mission work in colonial America. She is also remembered for her adversarial relationships with other Methodists.
Marie curie was born Maria Sklodowska on November 7 1867 in Warsaw, Poland. She met her scientist husband, Pierre Curie, in Paris in 1894, and they married a year later. It was around this time that she adopted the French spelling of her name – Marie. In 1903, she shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with French physicist Henri Becquerel and her husband for their work on radioactivity. Her name was initially left off the winners’ list but Pierre insisted she be included. She thus became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. In 1911, she was awarded the Chemistry Prize – becoming the first person to win two Nobels. Curie’s daughter, Irene Joliot-Curie, also won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, jointly with her husband, Frederic Joliot-Curie, in 1935. They are the only mother-daughter pair to have won Nobel Prizes. During the First World War, Curie worked to develop small, mobile X-ray units that could be used to diagnose injuries near the battlefront. The first machines were known as Petits Curies. She died on the 4th July 1934 from leukaemia, believed to have been caused by exposure to radiation from her research.